Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research (ISSN : 0975-7384)

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Original Articles: 2015 Vol: 7 Issue: 1

Study of the chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Algerian Laurus nobilis Lauraceae

Abstract

This work is part of the chemical composition’s study, of the essential oil’s antibacterial activity and antioxidant power. This oil is extracted, from an aromatic and medicinal plant of the Algerian flora, in order to find new metabolite products, which are characterized by a biological activity. The investigations and research on the essential oil; extracted from the dried leaves of Laurus nobilis Lauraceae, which was harvested in the region of Skikda (East of Algeria); and separated by gas chromatography coupled by a mass spectrometry (GC/MS); resulted in obtaining Twenty-two constituents, representing 99.7% of the essential oil of Laurus nobilis. The main compounds identified are 1,8-Cineole (45.36%), followed by bornylene (17.25% ), linalool (8.13%), and sabinene (7.48%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was tested using the agar disc diffusion method, by determining the inhibition zone and the minimum inhibitory concentration. The results have shown a great potential of the antimicrobial activity against the tested strains, with an enhanced sensitivity towards the Gram negative strains of Salmonella enterica and Klebsiella in comparison with the other tested bacteria. The tests results of the essential oil’s antioxidant activity, obtained with the anti-radical method 2,2- diphenyl-1-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) and the iron-reducing power (FRAP), were compared with those of the ascorbic acid; the usual synthetic antioxidant. The comparison have demonstrated; firstly with the DPPH method a considerable level of antioxidant activity of the essential oil (IC50 = 72.78 ± 2.70 μg/ml), but still lower than that found for the synthetic antioxidant that is the ascorbic acid; while the opposite occurred with the iron reduction method, with an higher obtained value of (EC50 = 14.66 ± 0.96 μg/ml), for the essential oil’s antioxidant activity.