Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research (ISSN : 0975-7384)

Reach Us reach to JOCPR whatsapp-JOCPR +44 1625708989
All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Reviews: 2016 Vol: 8 Issue: 2

Silver nanoparticles: Synthesis, mechanism of antimicrobial action, characterization, medical applications, and toxicity effects


Over the past few decades, nanoparticles of noble metals such as silver exhibited significantly distinct physical, chemical and biological properties from their bulk counterparts. Nano-size particles of less than 100nm in diameter are currently attracting increasing attention for the wide range of new applications in various fields of industry. Silver nanoparticles are of silver, which are in the range of 1 and 100 nm in size. Silver nanoparticles have unique properties which help in molecular diagnostics, in therapies, as well as in devices that are used in several medical procedures. The major methods used for silver nanoparticle synthesis are the physical and chemical methods. The problem with the chemical and physical methods is that the synthesis is expensive and can also have toxic substances absorbed onto them. To overcome this, the biological method provides a feasible alternative. The major biological systems involved in this are bacteria, fungi, and plant extracts. In most of the therapeutic applications, it is the antimicrobial property that is being majorly explored, though the anti-inflammatory property has its fair share of applications. Though silver nanoparticles have various applications, they have their drawbacks due to nano-toxicity. The silver nanoparticles can be characterized by scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray and electron diffraction analyses. The free-radical generation effect of silver nanoparticles on microbial growth inhibition can be investigated by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. This review provides a comprehensive view on the mechanism of action, production, applications in the medical field and toxicity of silver nanoparticles.