Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research (ISSN : 0975-7384)

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Original Articles: 2016 Vol: 8 Issue: 2

Separation of lead (II) ions from aqueous solutions by adsorption on kaoline


The presence of heavy metals in the environment has adverse effects on plants, animals and humans. Even a low concentration of lead in water is toxic to aquatic life. Lead affects the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and kidney function. The present study was aimed at the development of Kaoline, a carbonate mineral, as the adsorbent for the removal of lead(II) ions by adsorption. Separation of lead(II) ions from aqueous solutions containing 10 to 200 mg dm-3 of lead was studied. The effects of change in pH, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration of lead(II) ions, temperature and contact time were studied using batch method. The data were fed into various isotherm equations – Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich Peterson and Dubinin- Radushkevich and the best fit was envisaged. Thermodynamic parameters like changes in enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy for the adsorption process were evaluated. Kinetics of the adsorption process was studied using Lagergren’s first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich and Inter particle diffusion model rate equations and the rate constants and other parameters were deduced. Spectral studies (FTIR, XRD and SEM) were conducted on the adsorbent before and after the adsorption process and the data were analysed. Results show that the adsorption of lead(II) ions on kaoline is a spontaneous, endothermic process proceeding with increase in entropy.