Original Articles: 2011 Vol: 3 Issue: 6
Preoperative fasting duration and incidence of hypoglycemia and hemodynamic response in children
Studies of the effects of preoperative starvation on blood glucose levels in children have produced apparently conflicting results. The study which we conducted, investigated the incidence of hypoglycaemia and hypoglycaemic signs in the children fasted for various periods. It also studied the hemodynamic responses in the perioperative period in relation to the duration of fasting and reliability of hypoglycaemic signs to identify biochemically demonstrable hypoglycaemia. One hundred children with physical status ASA-I and II between 6 months to 6 years of age who underwent elective surgical procedures for like herniotomy, cleft lip repair etc, were included in the study after taking institutional ethics committee approval and written informed consent. The patients were randomly allocated to one of the below mentioned two groups of 50 patients each for the purpose of this study. Group –I constituted children who were kept fasting after midnight for morning surgery. Children in Group-II were given 5% Dextrose water as oral feed 10ml per kg of body weight 3-4 hours before the expected time of start of surgery. Standard anaesthesia technique was used in all the patients. No incidence of hypoglycaemia was found in both the study groups during perioperative period i.e. immediately before induction of anaesthesia and 20 minutes after induction of anaesthesia. The incidence of hypotension and low blood pressure was more in the overnight fasting group as compared to 3-4 hours fasting group, although all the readings were not statistically significant. On the basis of our observations, we recommended that prolonged or overnight fasting in the healthy paediatric age group (ASA I and II) between the age of 6 months to 6 years is to be avoided and oral feed of 5% Dextrose 10ml per Kg of body weight can be given 3-4 hours before surgery as the patient comfort is increased without compromising on safety and these patients had a better hemodynamic response in the perioperative period.