Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research (ISSN : 0975-7384)

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Original Articles: 2015 Vol: 7 Issue: 6

In vivo hypoglycemic activity and acute oral toxicity of ethanolic and aqueous leaves extract of Momordicacharantia Linn(Cucurbitaceae) from Benin


Momordica charantia or Bitter Melon, a tropical vegetable has been used extensively in traditional medicine as a remedy for many diseases. Momordica charantia Linn belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. Momordica charantia is reported to have been successfully used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Benin. The present study aims: (i) evaluating the phytochemical, antiradical and hypoglycemic activities of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Momordica charantia leaves; (ii) determining the acute oral toxicity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Momordica charantia. Qualitative phytochemical tests were used to detect the presence of bioactive molecules. Wistar rats were administrated Momordica charantia extracts (250 mg/kg and 500mg/kg ) orally for 14 days and blood glucose was measured once a day for about 2 weeks. Antiradical activity was made by using the DPPH method. Toxicological evaluation of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia on some liver function parameters of wistar rats (150-200g) was critically examined. Results from phytochemical screening indicated the presence of triterpenoids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, anthocyanes, leucoanthocyanes, reductor sugar, and mucilage and Cyanogenic compound in Momordica charantia leaves. Ethanolic extract showed a high potential antioxidant capacity (676, 4 mmolEqAA/g ± 26,195) followed by aqueous extract (42, 23 mmolEqAA/g ± 10, 6). Moreover, an increase of concentration to 2000 mg/kg was non-toxic for the rats. No toxicity activity was observed. Blood biochemical parameters and hematological parameters remain constant after administration of the plant ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Administration of ethanolic and aqueous extracts daily for two weeks resulted in decrease in blood glucose levels of rats. The important results obtained from this study justify the use of this plant in traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes.