Original Articles: 2014 Vol: 6 Issue: 3
Effects of triterpenes from Ardisia cf. elliptica (subgenus Tinus) and sterols from Ardisia pyramidalis Cav Pers on Artemia salina and Danio rerio toxicity and caudal fin regeneration
The dichloromethane extract of the air-dried leaves of Ardisia cf. elliptica (subgenus Tinus) afforded mixtures of α- amyrin (1a), β-amyrin (1b) and bauerenol (1c), while Ardisia pyramidalis leaves yielded spinasterol (2) and spinasteryl acetate (3). The mixtures of triterpenes (1a-1c) at ratios of 1:1:1, 2:2:1 and 2:2:3 and the sterols (2 and 3) were tested for their toxicity on Artemia salina and Danio rerio embryos. Compounds 1a-1c (1:1:1) (LC50 = 0.60 mg/ml), 1a-1c (2:2:1) (LC50 = 0.60 mg/ml), 1a-1c (2:2:3) (LC50 = 0.54 mg/ml), 2 (LC50 = 0.50 mg/ml) and 3 (LC50 = 0.52 mg/ml) were found toxic to A. salina nauplii after 48h of exposure. Teratologic manisfestations such as axial deformation, pericardial edema and yolk sac edema were observed in embryos treated with 1a-1c, 2 and 3. The mixtures of 1a-1c (1:1:1) and 1a-1c (2:2:1) were further tested for D. rerio caudal fin regeneration. A shorter caudal fin regeneration length was observed in D. rerio young adults exposed to 1a-1c (1:1:1) and 1a-1c (2:2:1). The results of the current study present implications on the toxicity and teratologic manifestations in relation to previously observed angiosuppressive activity of 1a-1c, 2 and 3.