Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research (ISSN : 0975-7384)

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Original Articles: 2016 Vol: 8 Issue: 2

Assessment of chromium concentrations in wastewater, soil and vegetable samples grown along Kubanni stream channels in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria


The concentration of chromium was determined in wastewater, soil and vegetable (carrot, lettuce, onion, spinach, cabbage, tomato and okro) samples collected on seasonal basis from January, 2013 to September 2014 along Kubanni stream channels in Zaria. The results showed chromium levels in wastewater were in the range of 4.17 – 33.33 mg/L for the year 2013 and 2.74 – 37.15 mg/L in 2014; 3.25 – 17.35 mg/Kg for the year 2013 and 3.75 – 18.40 mg/Kg in 2014 for the soil while the vegetables had concentrations in the range of 3.15 – 16.67 mg/Kg for the year 2013 and 1.58 – 24.32 mg/Kg in 2014. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in chromium levels across the locations and seasons for wastewater, soil and vegetables analyzed while significant difference (p < 0.050) was observed across the sampling location for soil. Pearson correlation showed substantial (r = 0.724) relationship between chromium levels in wastewater for the year 2013 and 2014, moderate (r = 0.671) relationship for soils between these two years while negative (r = -0.076) relationship was obtained for vegetables cultivated in 2013 and that of 2014 respectively. Chromium concentrations obtained in this study was higher than Maximum Contaminant Levels set by Standard Organizations such as W.H.O. and F.A.O.